Vanadium battery is also known as Vanadium Redox Flow battery which consists of cell stack, electrolyte and other supplementary units such as pipelines, pumps and storage tanks.
Same as rechargeable battery, vanadium battery can also be charged and discharged with the following differences:
1) Vanadium battery’s electric energy is stored in the form of electrolyte with total liquid phase reaction, eliminating the problems of short circuit and active matters detachment. The life of vanadium battery is also much longer.
2) The electrolyte and cell stack are separated. This allows flexible combinations of power and capacity.
3) Deep charge and discharge has no obvious influence on the life of battery.
4) All battery packs are almost identical for easy maintenance.
Rated energy efficiency of different types of vanadium batteries ranges from 75% to 80%.
The energy density of the vanadium electrolyte is 20-25 Wh/L.
The design life of vanadium battery system is 20 years. When the battery expires, the vanadium in the electrolyte can still be recycled.
Only very minor self-discharge is found during working. In standby mode, both anolyte and catholyte flow back to their respective storage tank and therefore there is no self-discharge.
It can be utilized in many fields such as peak load shifting in a power grid; storage of off-peak electricity; back-up power supply; smooth output of wind or photovoltaic power generation and energy storage for wind or photovoltaic power stations.
For wind power generation, vanadium battery can be used in the reduction of wind curtailment, enhancement of smooth output, power prediction, reactive compensation, low voltage ride-through and off-grid electric energy storage.
For photovoltaic power generation, vanadium battery can be used in the enhancement of smooth output, power regulations, low voltage ride-through, and off-grid energy storage.